Frequently Asked Questions
Why choose Exact DNA?
What are the important things to look for in a DNA testing company?
Can the testing be billed to my credit card discreetly?
Does Exact DNA accept international orders?
How is shipping arranged?
Tell me about Exact DNA
How can I contact Exact DNA?
Sample collection and Testing
How is the sample taken?
How is the test performed?
Why is information regarding the parent(s) ethnicity required?
Do I have to provide information on the parents ethnicity?
How are the results presented?
Is a sample from a biological parent required?
Is there a minimum age requirement for testing?
For test participants under the age of 18, do parents need to give permission for testing?
What if test participants live in different cities/countries?
Can testing be performed on someone who is unable to volunteer a mouth swab sample?
What does Exact DNA offer individuals who have been diagnosed with cancer?
What is a "Nutraceutical"?
Do I need to tell my doctor I am taking these nutraceuticals?
How long should I keep taking the nutraceuticals for?
Should I take these while I am on chemo or other treatments?
Will these nutraceuticals definitely help my cancer?
Are there side-effects associated with taking these nutraceuticals?
Will these nutraceuticals interact with any prescription drugs that I am taking?
Why do some scientific studies give conflicting results?
What do the terms "in vitro" and "in vivo" mean?
What does "statistical significance" mean?
What is a "placebo"?
Are there any other recommendations from scientific studies for staying healthy after treatment for cancer?
What are the benefits of buying from Exact DNA?
Can you recommend any independent sources that I can use for further research on nutraceuticals or my cancer?
Highest standards - Unlike many other DNA testing companies, all of our DNA testing is carried out in a laboratory fully certified by the AABB, ISO 17025, and NATA, ensuring your test is performed to the highest international standards.
Highest quality - All of our senior analytical staff hold PhD's, so you can be sure that our tests are performed and interpreted by experts.
Painless testing - Sample collection is quick, easy, and non-invasive - just follow the simple instructions in our home testing kit.
We accept international orders - We accept orders from anywhere in the world, and the sample can be sent to one of several Exact DANA international locations. We also can accept payment in several currencies.
Free shipping - All of our test kits and results reports are sent with free shipping, anywhere in the world!
No hidden charges - Other testing companies have hidden costs - for example some will charge an additional fee to provide the results once testing has been completed, and others overcharge for shipping. ALL of the costs to ship the kit, collect the sample, process the result, and report the result back to the requestor are included in the prices quotes by us, guaranteed.
Privacy guaranteed - Your privacy is of utmost importance to us. Any genetic or other information generated by us or provided by you or will NEVER be shared with a third party, such as an insurer, employer, or medical practitioner without your express written permission. Any and all personal data can be destroyed on request.
There are several DNA testing companies offering what look like very cheap tests, however, NOT ALL DNA TESTS ARE OF EQUAL QUALITY. To avoid getting an incorrect result from your test which could have devastating consequences, always ensure the following:
The testing company is fully accredited. Preferably by international accreditation bodies such as the AABB, ISO 17025, and NATA. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 17025 is the world standard in the certification of competence of testing and calibration of medical diagnostic laboratories. ISO 17025 certification ensures a high level of competence and compliance for the certified laboratory, ensuring that testing is undertaken by professionals. The AABB also certifies laboratories, and runs a accreditation programme specifically for high competence levels in parentage testing. The lab used by Exact DNA is accredited by both bodies.
The testing company uses an adequate number of genetic markers. To cut costs, many companies will use only a small number of genetic markers, which severely limits their accuracy. They will quote a 99% accuracy which sounds high, but in fact means that 1 in every 100 of their tests results are INCORRECT - are you willing to risk that on such an important result? Exact DNA uses at least 20 genetic markers, meaning the chance of an incorrect result is as low as one in several billion.
The testing company doesn't have hidden costs. They will lure you in with the promise of a cheap test, then charge you extra for shipping, for rapid results, or even to provide a copy of the results. Exact guarantees that you will pay NO MORE than the advertised price - shipping of the test kit, results, and testing are all included.
We appreciate the need for privacy for our clients and will bill your credit card discreetly.
Yes! We accept orders from anywhere in the world, and the sample can be sent to one of several Nimble Diagnostics international locations. We also can accept payment in almost any currency if requested.
We will ship a test kit out to you anywhere in the world free of charge within 24 hours of receiving an order. Once the samples have been collected, the kit should be mailed back to us. If there are any other special requests regarding shipping, please contact us and we will do our very best to accommodate them.
Sample collection and Testing
Samples for our DNA tests are collected simply by gently rubbing a soft swab on the inside of the cheek. No blood or other sample collection is required so the testing is painless and non-invasive. All instructions are provided in our home testing kits.
We test a number of genetic locations (known as 'loci') for each test in accordance with international paternity testing standards (including ISO 17025 guidelines) - which provides unsurpassed confidence in the paternity result. We utilise various population genetics statistics such as the Paternity Index to calculate test results. Because we guarantee a conclusive result in every case, Exact DNA provides the only DNA test you will ever need.
The frequency of a given allele for each of the loci we test generally changes depending on the ethnicity of the parents - i.e. genetic differences between people of Caucasian, African, Hispanic, or Asian backgrounds for example means we need to calculate the Paternity Index slightly differently to take into account their different backgrounds and to provide the most accurate result.
It is entirely up to you whether you want to/are able to provide this information, however it will increase the accuracy of the testing slightly if you do. If this data is not provided we will still be able to produce a conclusive result for you.
Results are simply reported to you as a probability that the two individuals tested are biologically related, and a final conclusion (for example for our paternity tests, "X is the biological father of Y", or "X is excluded as the biological father of Y"). The results report can be emailed, posted, or both, which can be selected upon ordering.
This is not required, and many DNA tests are done without including a sample from a biological parent. Testing including a biological parent can often increase the accuracy of testing however, and we will include a biological parent in a standard test at no additional cost.
There is no minimum age requirement for a test participant (indeed DNA tests are frequently performed shortly after birth). Samples are collected painlessly by rubbing a soft swab in the inside of the cheek so it is painless, non-invasive, and simple to collect, even from a young child.
At least one parent or legal guardian must give permission for DNA testing to be conducted on an individual under 18 years of age. For DNA paternity testing the father can provide permission for a child without requiring the biological mothers permission.
This is no problem - we have labs and collection centres in multiple cities and countries, so can dispatch multiple test kits from different offices (even internationally) to local test participants at no extra charge, which they can then return locally. We'll then arrange for all samples to be tested together at the same lab. If you'd like us to do this, just let us know the address to which you'd like the second test kit sent by typing this in the 'Additional Comments' box of our online order form.
If for any reason a swab cannot be collected for an individual being tested, genetic material can often also be collected from other sources, including saliva (e.g. on chewed gum or cigarette butts), blood stains (e.g. on a razor), hair (e.g. from a hairbrush), or other forensic samples. This may be specified in our online order form.
Court-admissible paternity tests require special collection and processing and thus are generally more expensive than "peace-of-mind", non-court-admissible paternity tests (it is important to note, however, our "peace-of-mind" tests provide an accuracy equal to or greater than all internationally accepted court-admissible paternity tests). In our experience, the majority of paternity tests reveal that the alleged father of the child in question is in fact the true biological father. Therefore, performing an initial "peace-of-mind" paternity test at much less expense is usually far more cost-effective for the majority of our clients. If a court-admissible test is required, however, please contact us and we can make arrangements for one depending on your country of residence.
The lack of ongoing treatment options for "well but worried" cancer patients following successful initial treatment during the long latency that many types of cancer are known to have provides an excellent opportunity to positively intervene using appropriate dietary and lifestyle changes. Indeed, much research in recent years has demonstrated that certain naturally-occurring compounds found in small amounts in a healthy diet can be extremely beneficial in a variety of cancers for delaying cancer relapse, ameliorating some unpleasant symptoms of the disease, and prolonging survival. Very frequently however, after the completion of these studies the research teams either do not have the interest or the expertise to take their work that step further to produce an actual medicinal product and make it available to help patients. Our goal is to not only make available the latest cutting-edge research on the use of specific natural compounds proven to be beneficial for cancer, but also to offer the high-quality nutraceutical products based on this research. We aim to present all relevant research data in a readable but scientific way so an individual can be fully informed about what is known about a particular compound and the circumstances in which it may help (or not) in cancer treatment.
ALL of the data and studies presented on this site have been published in respected peer-reviewed medical and science journals. In addition, scientists and doctors with long-standing experience in cancer treatment and research have contributed to the presentation of the data shown on these pages. We've included extensive references for all studies to enable individuals who are interested in further research into of these compounds to do so. We encourage individuals to use these resources to make an informed decision about what is best for you.
From Wikipedia: "Nutraceutical, a term combining the words 'nutrition' and 'pharmaceutical', is a food or food product that provides health and medical benefits, including the prevention and treatment of disease. Such products may range from isolated nutrients, dietary supplements and specific diets to genetically engineered foods, herbal products, and processed foods such as cereals, soups, and beverages. Researchers and medical practitioners have recently begun translating breakthroughs in the cellular and molecular study of these nutraceutical agents into responsible medical practice. The term nutraceutical was originally defined by Dr. Stephen L. DeFelice, founder and chairman of the Foundation of Innovation Medicine (FIM), Crawford, NJ. Since the term was coined by Dr. DeFelice, it's meaning has been modified by Health Canada which defines nutraceutical as: a product isolated or purified from foods, and generally sold in medicinal forms not usually associated with food and demonstrated to have a physiological benefit or provide protection against chronic disease."
Always take the advice of your doctor or medical professional. We DO NOT intend for these nutraceuticals to replace standard therapies recommended by your doctor, but rather to be taken in addition to or after your primary treatment is complete. Treatment advice provided by your doctor will always be the most effective way of controlling your cancer and symptoms. While the compounds in our nutraceuticals are found in small amounts in healthy diets and are known to be extremely safe at the dosages provided, always discuss with your doctor before you start taking any new supplement.
Large clinical studies that have been undertaken on individuals whose treatment for cancer has included nutraceuticals have been somewhat inconsistent on this question. For example, one large study (Hercberg, et al. Int J Cancer. 2010 Jan 26) which included 12,741 individuals who took a nutraceutical daily over 7.4 years, found that individuals were only protected against cancer for the duration that they were taking it – in the 5 years after the study when subjects were no longer taking the nutraceutical, the rates of cancer increased again to that of the general population. In another large study however (Qiao, et al. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2009 Apr 1;101(7):507-18.) in which 29,584 individuals were given a nutraceutical daily for 6 years, they researchers noted that its protective effects and decreased mortality were evident up to 10 years after the study was completed. Since our natural nutraceuticals are safe, well-tolerated, and have a large number of other beneficial effects on the body and don't have any negative effects associated with long-term usage, we would recommend daily use for as long as possible to ensure their positive effects remain evident.
While the components in our nutraceuticals are safe, well-studied, well-tolerated and found at low levels in a normal healthy diet, you should always consult your doctor before taking them if you are on other forms of medication, including chemotherapy.
Like for any medication, supplement, or pharmacological treatment currently used today it is impossible to predict ahead of time how much benefit a particular individual will derive from taking our nutraceuticals. We can only point to the conclusions of large, rigorous clinical trials that have been undertaken investigating the compounds found in our nutraceuticals for the benefit of large groups of people with or recovering from cancer. In each study scientists will usually report an "average" effect from many (often thousands) of individuals, however implicit in reporting conclusions this way is that in most studies while many patients will significantly benefit from taking the nutraceuticals described, some will not. We have summarized and fully referenced all of the relevant findings for you as we believe it is important for an individual to be empowered and have as much objective information as possible so that they can make their own fully educated decisions. It should also be noted that all of the compounds in our nutraceuticals have also been proven to have beneficial effects in other areas of health.
Like any supplement or treatment, in rare cases taking these nutraceuticals could lead to side-effects. Possible side-effects (which in almost all cases only become apparent if the stated doses are exceeded by a large amount) can include but are not limited to: indigestion, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, flushing of the face, headaches, fatigue, disturbed sleep, and skin rashes, loss of appetite, weakness, irritability, skin discolouration, and joint pain. We only use naturally-derived components that are safe, well-studied, and well-tolerated. Millions of people worldwide have taken every one of the dietary supplements in our nutraceutical mixes for decades and they have proven to be extremely safe provided they are taken at the specified dosages. If, however, for any reason you experience any unpleasant side-effects, cease taking them immediately.
Prescription medications contain powerful ingredients and can interact adversely with various foods, drinks, herbs and supplements as well as other medications. While we only use naturally-derived components that are safe, well-studied, and well-tolerated, we strongly recommend that you consult with your primary care physician about any potential interactions before taking other medications, herbs or supplements with our nutraceuticals. It is also important to notify your physician and pharmacist about all vitamins, minerals, herbs and medicines that you are taking if they are prescribing medication to you to avoid side effects or adverse medical conditions.
We have endeavoured to provide information on all the clinical studies we can find on a given cancer type and nutraceutical component. Our aim is to provide a full and objective overview of the relevant scientific literature rather than just reporting the studies which provide positive evidence for the use of a particular component. However, in doing so we will sometimes find clinical studies which contradict the findings of other studies, yet we will present them here so you have a full understanding of the current research in the field. There are many possible reasons why some studies sometimes generate conflicting results and conclusions to other similar studies. These can include: (i) the use of different patient populations (for example a population deficient in a particular nutrient will often provide a more significant positive effect than a healthy population, or patient groups of different genetic backgrounds can respond differently to a given compound), (ii) the use of different dosages (for example some researchers will use larger amounts (so-called "mega-doses") of a particular compound which may result in differences in outcome to other studies that use a lower dose), (iii) the use of different outcomes to measure the effect (for example, a study may look at the effects of a particular compound on cancer markers in the blood, whereas another study may look at its effect purely on survival times of patients. It is possible for some compounds can show beneficial effects on one but not the other), (iv) the use of patient groups of different sizes (for example, using a small patient population can result in random effects being observed and erroneously attributed to the treatment. Generally the more individuals a study includes, the more accurate the results will be), and even different statistical methods used to analyse the data. A general rule-of-thumb is that the study which contains more patients and/or is placebo-controlled and/or double-blinded and/or uses humans rather than an animal model or in vitro system, will be the best representation of how a particular compound will work in members of the general population.
A procedure performed in vitro (Latin for within the glass) is performed not in a living organism but in a controlled environment, for example in a Petri dish or flask. In the medical sciences, in vitro generally means isolating a specific cell type only from tissue, growing it in a Petri dish or flask, and then looking at the biological effects of various manipulations to it (for example, looking at the effects of adding ascorbic acid to prostate cancer cells grown in a flask). In vitro studies are frequently used to tease out the specific cellular and molecular processes that are active in response to a given compound. Since they usually only involve a single cell type in the absence of other complex cells and tissues, they provide a much simplified background with which to study a particular treatment. However, for this very reason it is important to note that the treatment of a single population of cells growing outside the body in this way is not always representative of what happens inside the body, when the cells are engaged in much more complex interactions with each other and their environment. While in vitro studies often provide important clues as to the action of particular compounds, in the end the only truly relevant studies are those undertaken on a large population of human patients.
In vivo (Latin for within the living) is experimentation using a whole, living organism, as opposed to only parts or cells from an organism. Animal testing and clinical trials are two forms of in vivo research. In vivo testing is often employed over in vitro because it is better suited for observing the overall effects of an experiment on a living subject.
In statistics, a result is statistically significant if it is unlikely to have occurred by chance. For example, if a group of patients treated with a particular drug result have a statistically significant increase in survival time compared to a group treated with a placebo, it means that the increased survival is due to the drug treatment and not some other random effect. In some studies there may be an observed effect on survival but not a statistically significant one. This means that it is not possible to conclusively say that the observed survival effects are due to the treatment or whether it is natural variation within the population studied.
A placebo has been defined as "a substance or procedure ... that is objectively without specific activity for the condition being treated". In one common placebo procedure, a patient is given an inert pill, told that it may improve his/her condition, but not told that it is in fact inert. Such an intervention may cause the patient to believe the treatment will change his/her condition; and this belief may produce a subjective perception of a therapeutic effect, causing the patient to feel their condition has improved. This phenomenon is known as the placebo effect. Placebos are widely used in medical research and medicine, and the placebo effect is a pervasive phenomenon; in fact, it is part of the response to any active medical intervention. Because of this, when studying the effects of a particular treatment or drug, scientists will compare a group of patients taking the drug versus a group of patients taking a placebo (rather than a group of patients taking nothing). Any observable effects in the patients taking the drug compared to those taking the placebo is therefore due to the true activity of the drug, rather than just the placebo effect. For this reason placebo-controlled studies are considered significantly more reliable than studies that are not placebo-controlled.
The American Cancer Society suggests the following guidelines to improve general health to help both the prevention of cancer, as well as maintaining good health after a cancer diagnosis:
1. Maintain a healthy weight throughout life:
- Balance caloric intake with physical activity.
- Avoid excessive weight gain throughout the lifecycle.
- Achieve and maintain a healthy weight if currently overweight or obese.
2. Adopt a physically active lifestyle:
- Adults: engage in at least 30 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, above usual activities, on five or more days of the week (45-60 minutes of intentional physical activity are preferable).
- Children and adolescents: engage in at least 60 minutes per day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity at least 5 days per week.
3. Consume a healthy diet, with an emphasis on plant sources:
- Choose foods and beverages in amounts that achieve and maintain a healthy weight.
- Eat five or more servings of a variety of vegetables and fruits each day.
- Choose whole grains in preference to processed (refined) grains.
- Limit consumption of processed and red meats.
4. If you drink alcoholic beverages, limit consumption to no more than one drink per day for women or two per day for men.
Not all organic supplements are created equal – for example a massive 16 out of 40 nutritional supplements tested recently by the Government Accountability Office (GAO) were found to contain higher than legal amounts of pesticide residues and other contaminates. This is the often result of retailers procuring their supplements from manufacturing plants in countries with much lower safety standards, simply because they are cheap. All of our nutraceuticals are manufactured in a fully accredited pharmaceutical laboratory in the USA to the highest purity and safety standards. Every product batch is tested under the rigorous rules and procedures set by NNfA cGMP, cGLP, FDA, state and federal health departments. All of our products are therefore guaranteed to be of the highest quality.
We provide full ingredient information, safety information, and an extensive, referenced review of scientific studies performed on each nutraceutical component and on how, why and under what circumstances each supplement is beneficial for your specific cancer type. First and foremost we want you to be fully informed about each of the components in our nutraceuticals and exactly what effects they are known to have on specific cancer types.
To our knowledge we are the only company offering tailor-made nutraceuticals specifically for cancer patients. Our nutraceuticals are specifically formulated to the exact dosage and purity specifications outlined in the listed scientific studies for specific cancer types. Other supplement retailers focus on general health, and so do not use the specific formulation and dosage that has found to be most efficacious for specific cancers.
We would highly recommend that anyone interested in researching these nutraceuticals or cancer further look at the main database of scientific and clinical studies, PubMed. It is free to search and view abstracts from millions of scientific studies published in peer-reviewed scientific journals over the past several decades. Full tutorials and help using PubMed can be found here. While they are generally of a technical nature and intended for a scientific/medical professional audience, non-specialists should also find them extremely useful.